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If there is one thing that is abundantly clear in the evidence presented, it is the fact that models of the locations of continents in the distant past are not to be taken as gospel.

The Standard Theory has India located 4,000 miles away from its true position 65 MYA. How many other significant errors are there?

Fortunately, Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory has some help for paleo-geological modelers.


One of the big problems in building models is the lack of fixed points of reference as the model moves backwards in time. Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory can help with the problem in much the same way that Cepheid variable stars help astronomers establish distance in space.

In astronomy, Cepheid variable stars are used as "standard candles" to help determine the distance from earth to a star in that galaxy. The Cepheid variable star has a constant light value. 24

However, scientists were fooled for years by the fact that there were actually two populations of Cepheid variables; one significantly dimmer than the other. This confusion caused mismeasurement of galaxy size and distance.

Now the two types of Cepheids have been identified and the models have been straightened out. 25

The Cepheid variable story shows the usefulness of a standard measuring stick and also offers up a cautionary tale about the use and interpretation of standard measuring sticks.


In paleogeology, the analog for the Cepheid variable star is the impact crater and its antipodal hotspot.

An impact crater and its antipodal hotspot can establish the relative position of two different locations at a specific point in time. With enough of these pairs, modelers will be able to create a much more certain map of geological history … especially if one of those sites has additional information, such as the latitude at which the lava was created.

While there aren't many major extinctions and their attendant impacts and hotspots, there are significantly more smaller impacts with hotspots (i.e. Chesapeake Bay). Because smaller impacts happen more frequently, there will be many more recent pairs to work with.

However, finding the right pairs can be a challenge. The antipode of the Chicxulub impact has been estimated to be in several locations. Nonetheless, this pairing should open up new opportunities for paleogeological modelers, with greater accuracy as a result.