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Now that we have reviewed some of the relevant features of the Standard Theory, it is time to take a look at Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory, a theory of antipodal impact effects.

This new theory views the basic structure of the Earth in the same way as the Standard Theory. This new theory also agrees with the basic designation of the four major layers of the earth — the lithosphere, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core.

However, Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory disagrees with the Standard Theory about some aspects of ALL of the other features discussed in the previous chapter. This new theory especially disagrees with the Standard Theory about the effects of a large impact at the antipode of the impact site. The Standard Theory says that the effects at the antipode would be minimal, as long as the lithosphere is not breached at the impact site. Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory says that the effects at the antipode can vary from significant to catastrophic.

Let's look at how Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory views the results of a major cosmic impact.


This new theory finds that the effects of a major cosmic impact on the planet Earth are a two-step process, one step for the lithosphere and another step for the mantle.

But before getting into this two-step process, there are some other factors to consider.

The first factor is the location of the impact. Is the impact on-or-near-land or in deep water? These two different impact sites can produce vastly different results.

An on-or-near-land impact would transfer kinetic energy directly to the lithosphere and then to the mantle. There would be little or no mitigating effect from water.

However, an impact in deep water would see much of its power dissipated by the water before the impact object hit the lithosphere. Yes, there would be mega-tsunamis, but the lithosphere and the mantle would see a significantly reduced impact result. Let's remember that 50% to 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by deep water.

The second factor to consider is the fact that the Earth can be viewed as a closed hydraulic system, with a few minor leaks (volcanoes). The Earth has the thin hard shell of the lithosphere surrounding a liquid mantle and a dense core.

Just like the hydraulic piston of a forklift truck, impact pressure on the Earth's liquid mantle will cause it to transfer that energy with great efficiency.

Now we can look at the two-step process involved when a really big cosmic object hits the Earth on-or-near-land. There are two big kinetic results from this kind of impact … one at the surface and another at the sub-surface level.

1. SURFACE EFFECT—The surface of the hard shell of the lithosphere at the impact site is pulverized to a significant depth (thousands of feet). The shock of the impact causes a mega-earthquake, which radiates quickly around the globe. The power of the impact will actually cause the Earth's surface at the impact site to deform and bend inwards (it will recover later).

With the Earth being roughly spherical, these diminishing but still very powerful earthquake forces all come together at the antipode (the exact opposite side of the Earth) of the impact site, where they pulverize the rock of the lithosphere. The diminishing earthquake waves continue around the Earth many more times until they finally subside. The important factor to note here is the fact that the pulverized rock at the antipode is now extremely weak and will offer very little frictional (or shear) resistance to any pressure from the magma below.

2. SUB-SURFACE EFFECT—The impact deforms the lithosphere and transfers a great amount of kinetic energy to the liquid mantle. Under great pressure, the liquid mantle seeks ways to relieve the pressure, seeking out a weak point … especially a weak point that is near the highest area of pressure.

Like pressurized water finding a hole in a garden hose, the liquid magma forms a plume in the weakened area (the antipode) and relieves much of the pressure by eruption at the antipode.


What happens when the Earth receives a really huge cosmic impact … an impact so huge that volcanism at the antipode cannot come close to relieving the pressure?

The answer to this question is: Continental uplift.

When the pressure forces are so great that even a roaring antipodal eruption can't relieve them, these forces will overcome both the inertial force of friction that holds the rock of the lithosphere together (the shear strength) and the gravitational weight of the crust, itself. These huge uplifting forces will shear the rocks in a perimeter line where the energy is just great enough to overcome both the weight and the shear strength of the rock.

This uplifting force will create an antipodal continent in the shape of a "blob with a tail" (more on that later). This continent will be uplifted several thousand feet (once the inertial friction or shear strength is overcome, the dynamic friction is all that is left and it will be much less … and the force from underneath the non-uplifted area will also join the party). This uplift is aided by rapid crack propagation of the brittle surface (see Crack Propagation in Appendix III). The uplift will continue until the pressure has been relieved enough for the weight of the uplifted rock to balance it out.

If the original impact occurred at an angle (usually it does, and it is usually between 30 degrees and 45 degrees from vertical), then the energy transfer imbues this new continent with huge directional energy … enough energy to cause the new continent to force rapid subduction from both ends of the oceanic plate next to it and send the new continent moving away in the direction dictated by that directional energy. (Further reflection on this idea causes a revised opinion. While the direction will be the primary influence of the shape and orientation of the "blob with a tail," the off-center nature of the impact will be the primary influence in the directional movement (see "Sidespin" in Appendix VII).

This new continent will move rapidly in the dictated direction until it runs into another continental mass. This situation occurred 65 MYA during the formation of the Indian continent and 250 MYA during the formation of the Siberian continent. It has probably occurred many other times during the history of the planet, as illustrated by the "blob with a tail" continents which are visible (or, in the case of Australia, reconstructible) today.

This theory of continental formation is very different from that of the Standard Theory.


The above examples of continental formation through continental uplift focus on new continents forcing rapid subduction of the ocean floor in a direction imparted by the initial cosmic impact.

Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory regards hotspots as directionally imbued entities created by aggressively directional plumes of magma. A plume is created at the antipode of a large cosmic impact and is imbued with the directional force of the angle of that cosmic impact angle of that cosmic impact, and, in particular its off-center nature.


This new theory also differs from the Standard Theory regarding island arcs and trenches. This new theory regards most island arcs as evidence of hotspot activity. The new theory views hotspots as being imbued with motion and as being the cause of most island arcs.

Now, this does not mean that the island arc areas can't become involved with subduction later on. Far from it. Once an island arc severs part of a tectonic plate from the rest of that plate, in effect, it has created a new tectonic plate. At that point, material from the old tectonic plate can be subducted beneath the new tectonic plate. This process is now playing out with the old Australian plate being subducted underneath the new Philippines plate, which was created from part of the old Australian plate by the island arc of the Indonesian islands.

The deepwater trenches that are found near island arcs are, at least in some cases, the result of a tearing of the Earth's surface as a new continental blob passes by in a curved motion (the curved motion usually being caused by the Coriolis effect). The Sunda (or Java) Trench off of Indonesia is the best example of this type of trench. It will be explained exhaustively in Chapter 8.


This chapter highlights some of the major differences between the Standard Theory and Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory. The next chapters will focus on more specific details concerning Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory. Then, in the following chapters, this new theory will be brought to life in the real story of the creation of the Indian continent. Appendices I, II, III and IV further explore Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory in relation to the creation of Siberia, Western Antarctica, South America and Eastern North America.

See illustration 3 - A for a graphic depiction of the difference between
the Standard Theory and Ben's Antipodal Impact Theory.